Types of Brain Injuries

There are many types of brain injury. Depending on the type of force the brain can receive several different types of injuries. Often the type of injury the brain receives may effect just one functional area of the brain, various areas, or all areas of the brain. Some of the most common traumatic brain injuries and their traits are discussed below, followed by their related definitions.


Skull fracture

This can be caused by a traumatic injury to the head sustained during, for example, a fall, an assault or a road traffic accident.


Anoxic Brain Injury

A lack of oxygen to the brain which causes cells to die. Such injury can occur during birth or carbon monoxide poisoning.



This is basically bruising to the brain tissue and can cause headaches, vomiting and dizziness. Concentration may also be affected. It can be caused by a direct blow to the head, e.g. an assault or falling and hitting the head on the floor.


Diffuse Axonal Injury

Depending on the force of the injury, nerve connections may be damaged. If a nerve connection or pathway is damaged, this can have devastating consequences. The injuries are microscopic and often cannot be detected on MRI scans or CT scans. An individual with such an injury can present a variety of functional impairments.



This is an accumulation of blood between the skull and the lining of the brain (the dura). This can cause pressure changes in the brain and emergency surgery may be necessary. Blood clots may also be found deep in the middle of the brain. These are hard to remove and can cause tissue damage. Surgery may be used to relieve the pressure.


Contact our brain injury team

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